Quiet-List 1997

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Quiet-List F.A.Q. for 7/97



Quiet-List  F.A.Q. (Frequently Asked Questions)

July-1997
Version 1.2

Send corrections and additions to listowner "quiet@igc.org" 

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Contents:

1. How do I subscribe/unsubscribe/post messages? 
2. What is noise pollution?
3. How does the Decibel scale work?
4. How many people are affected by noise pollution?
5. At what level does noise become dangerous?
6. How can the Law protect me from noise? 
7. Where are the internet resources for noise pollution?      

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(1) HOW DO I SUBSCRIBE/UNSUBSCRIBE/POST MESSAGES?

    To subscribe, email a message to "majordomo@igc.org" as follows:

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    2. In the body of the message type: "subscribe quiet-list"
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       Note: you must send this message from the same e-mail address 
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       If you find you are having trouble subscribing or unsubscribing, 
    please send a message describing the problem to "quiet@igc.org".

To post a message to this list, use the address "quiet-list@igc.org". 

(2) WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?

   Noise pollution is not easily defined.  In the broadest sense, it 
is any unwanted or unnecessary sound resulting from human action, and 
need not be loud.  Loudness is only one component of the effect noise 
has on human beings.  Other factors that have to be considered are the 
time and place, the duration, the source of the sound, and whether the 
listener has any control over it.  Most people would not be bothered 
by the sound of a 21-gun salute on a special occasion.  On the other 
hand, the thump-thump of a neighbour's music at 2 a.m., even if barely 
audible, can be a major source of stress.  Noise causes stress, and 
stress is a leading cause of illness and suicide.  Therefore any form 
of noise can be considered pollution if it causes annoyance, 
sleeplessness, fright, or any other stress reaction.

   In the strictest sense, noise pollution is any sound known to be 
harmful to health or welfare.  Transportation vehicles are generally 
the worst offenders, with aircraft, trains, trucks, buses, automobiles 
and motorcycles all producing excessive noise.  Construction 
equipment, such as jackhammers, riveters, and bulldozers, are also 
prolific noise producers.

(3) HOW DOES THE DECIBEL SCALE WORK? 

   The decibel (dB) is a measure of sound intensity; that is, the  
magnitude of the fluctuations in air pressure caused by sound waves.  
The decibel scale is logarithmic, not arithmetic.  Each 10dB increase 
represents 10 times as much noise.  Human perception of loudness is 
also logarithmic.  Thus, 30 dB is 10 times more intense than 20 dB and 
sounds twice as loud.  40 dB is 100 times more intense than 20 and 
sounds 4 times as loud.  80 dB is a million times more intense than       
20 and sounds 64 times as loud.  A sound pressure level of 0 dB 
represents the threshold of hearing in the most sensitive frequency 
range of a young, healthy ear.

   Distance diminishes the effective decibel level reaching the ear.  
Thus, moderate auto traffic at a distance of 100 ft (30m) rates about 
50 decibels.  To the driver in the car with the window open, or a 
pedestrian on the sidewalk, the same traffic rates about 70 decibels;
that is, it sounds 4 times louder.  At a distance of 2,000 ft (800m), 
the noise of a jet takeoff reaches about 110 decibels -- approximately 
the same as a riveting machine or auto horn only 3 ft (1m) away.  
Subjected to 45 decibels of noise, the average person cannot sleep.  
At 120 decibels, the ear registers pain, but actual hearing damage 
begins at a much lower level, about 85 decibels.

(4) HOW MANY ARE AFFECTED BY NOISE POLLUTION? 
 
   Federal estimates indicate that some 80 million (or more than one 
in three) people in the U.S. are continually harassed by noise  
pollution, 40 million to a degree endangering health, with 18 
million already suffering noise-induced hearing loss.  There is 
evidence that among the young in the U.S. hearing sensitivity is 
decreasing year by year because of exposure to excessive noise.  
    
(5) AT WHAT LEVEL DOES NOISE BECOME DANGEROUS? 

   Because permanent hearing loss is usually a long-term process, it is
impossible to know at exactly what point noise becomes loud enough to cause
damage to the ears. However, many experts consider it unsafe to be exposed 
indefinitely to a sound level of 85 dB or higher. 

   Workers are typically prohibited by regulation from being exposed to 
85 dB for longer than eight hours a day. Since sound intensity doubles with 
every increase of 3 dB, the time of permitted exposure must be cut in half 
with each such increase. Thus a worker would have to wear ear protection if 
exposed to 88 dB for four hours, 91 dB for two hours, and so on.

   Using this measure of safety, the sound level in a typical night club,
110 dB, would pose a risk of permanent hearing damage after less than two
minutes of exposure.

   Apart from hearing loss, noise can cause lack of sleep, irritability,
heartburn, indigestion, ulcers, high blood pressure, and heart disease,
One burst of noise, as from a passing truck, is known to alter 
endocrine, neurological, and cardiovascular functions in many 
individuals; prolonged or frequent exposure to such noise tends to 
make the physiological disturbances chronic.  In addition, noise-induced
stress creates severe tension in daily living and contributes to mental
illness.      

(6) HOW CAN THE LAW PROTECT ME FROM NOISE? 

   In Canada and the United States there are no national, provincial, 
or state laws that give blanket protection against noise, though there 
are some specific regulations governing manufacturing standards, air 
traffic, vehicle mufflers, and so on.  Criminal laws may also cover 
things like noisy parties. 

   Noise is now recognized as a controllable pollutant that can yield 
to abatement technology.  In the United States, the Noise Control Act 
of 1972 empowers the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the 
limits of noise required to protect public health and welfare; to set 
noise emission standards for major sources of noise in the environment,
including transportation equipment and facilities, construction 
equipment, and electrical machinery; and to recommend regulations for 
controlling aircraft noise and sonic booms, statistically a nuisance 
to some 40 million persons.  The law further  requires that consumer 
goods be labeled with their noise-generating characteristics so that 
buyers may select quieter equipment.

   Local noise bylaws and ordinances vary widely from one municipality 
to another and indeed do not even exist in some towns and cities. 
Where they exist, they may contain a general prohibition against 
making noise that is a nuisance to other people, or they may set out 
specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times 
of the day and for certain activities. Exceptions are generally made 
for activities considered legitimate or necessary, such as lawn-mowing 
or garbage collection. 

   Regardless of how lax or stringent a local law may be, enforcement 
is difficult.  Many municipalities do not have adequate resources to 
follow upon complaints. Even where a municipality has an enforcement 
office, it maybe unwilling to do more than issue warnings, since 
taking offenders to court is expensive. The police may also act on 
certain kinds of noise complaints, but generally do not assign them a 
high priority.

   For persistent nuisances, the individual may have to seek damages 
through the civil courts. This can be a long, costly procedure with no 
certainty of success.

   In short, legal protection against noise is very patchy and often 
inadequate.
                (portions copyright 1993, The Columbia Encyclopedia)

(7) WHERE ARE THE INTERNET RESOURCES FOR NOISE POLLUTION?      

   . Right to Quiet - "http://www.islandnet.com/~skookum/quiet"; 

   . Noise Pollution Clearing House  -
      "http://www.nonoise.org";
  
   . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) -
       "http://www.epa.gov/docs/epacfr40/chapt-1.info/subch-G";

   . Citizens' Coalition Against Noise (C.C.A.N.)/Toronto -
       "http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/CCAN";

   . The Noise Center - "http://www.lhh.org/noise";

   . World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE) -  
       "http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/WFAEHomePage";

   . The Quiet Use Coalition - email "jetchalk@chaffee.net"

   . Adverse Health Impacts of Airport Expansion - 
       "http://www.rcaanews.org/rcaa/health.htm";

- - - - - - - - - - E N D   O F   F. A. Q. - - - - - - - -

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